The area of New Zealand – 268 021 sq.km, and population of 3781,5 thousand people (19 This country includes two big islands – Northern (113 729 sq.km) where about 3/4 population are concentrated, and Youzhny (150 437 sq.km), and also a number of smaller islands – Styyuart (1680 sq.km) at the southernmost tip of South Island, the Chatham Islands (963 sq.km) and a little more remote with a total area of 1015 sq.km; from them the only group some considerable sizes – islands Oakland (567 sq.km). Only the Kermadec Islands and Campbell on which meteorological stations are located have resident population. Tokelau jurisdiction of New Zealand also (group of three small atolls in the southern part Silent the ocean and sector of Antarctic near the Ross Sea (the coastal land and nearby the island treats.
About 6 million hectares occupy various azonal and intrazonal soils which properties are defined by maternal breed. The fertile soils developed on volcanic ashes in the central part of the Northern island, peaty soils of the valley of Uaikato, alluvial soils of river valleys, and also soils of the drained sites of the sea coast are that.
At the time of development of the country by Europeans the extensive areas in New Zealand, especially on the Southern island, were occupied by vysokotravny dernovinny zlakovnik. Today they remained only in mountains, and on plains are replaced with pastures from the introduced European cereals (a ryegrass, hedgehogs, fescues) and a clover. In the east of the Northern island communities of a local cereal of a dantoniya are still rather widespread.
Soils. In general soils of New Zealand are poor in a humus and maloplodorodna. Everywhere, except for the sites which are periodically flooded by floods and blocked by silt, for preservation of productive pastures it is required to bring a large amount of fertilizers.